There is a tremendous variability in the maturation age between breeds, and even within a breed of dog. Testosterone does not cause a behavior to occur, but its absence may decrease the occurrence of a "bad" behavior. The largest litter size to date was set by a Neapolitan Mastiff in Manea, Cambridgeshire, UK on November 29, ; the litter was 24 puppies. A rule of thumb is that a mammal will produce half as many offspring as the number of teats on the mother. Retrieved 4 November Sexual selection Sexual reproduction evolution reproductive system Courtship display sexual ornamentation handicap principle sexy son hypothesis Fisherian runaway Mating systems mate choice mating call mating plug lek mating Copulation pseudocopulation Fertilisation internal external sperm competition traumatic insemination penile spines Modes monogamy promiscuity polyandry polygyny polygynandry semelparity and iteroparity opportunistic hermaphroditism cuckoldry seasonal synchrony synchronous spawning Sexual dimorphism anisogamy oogamy Bateman's principle bimaturism cannibalism coercion Sexual conflict interlocus intralocus Interspecies breeding Non-reproductive behavior Fisher's principle.
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A cohort study of breeds". Because the African wild dog Lycaon pictus largely exists in fragmented small populations, its existence is endangered. High risk breeds for stillborn includes the Dogue de Bordeaux Some breeds have been developed to emphasize certain physical traits beyond the point at which they can safely bear litters on their own. Male canines are the only animals that have a locking bulbus glandis or "bulb", a spherical area of erectile tissue at the base of the penis.
This article is about reproduction in domestic dogs. An average litter consists of about five to six puppies , though this number may vary widely based on the breed of dog. Dog breeding Dog health Dogs Reproduction in mammals Theriogenology. At that time she may gain weight, have mammary gland development, produce milk, and exhibit nesting behaviours. An artificial vagina is prepared, which is a conical thin latex sleeve ending in a sterile collection tube.
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The male is allowed to sniff a female in estrus. For copulatory tying in non-canine animals, see Fossa animal Breeding , Black-footed ferret Reproduction and development , and Vasa parrot Unusual characteristics. Animal control agencies in the United States and the ASPCA advise that dogs not intended for further breeding should be spayed or neutered so that they do not have undesired puppies. While characteristic of mating in most canids, the copulatory tie has been reported to be absent  or very brief less than one minute  in the African wild dog , possibly due to the abundance of large predators in its environment. Veterinary Medicine Publishing Company. Heide Schatten; Gheorghe M. The Complete Book of Dog Breeding. New studs often require encouragement in the form of manual stimulation.